Hello and Noso-n to visitors to this page. Noso-n can be said "In breath as it is in spirit". This is the Mutsun language, San Juan Bautista Area, Southern Costanoan Territory.

Costanoan-Ohlone Indian Canyon Resource Home

icon to go to large map of southern costanoan tribal areas A LARGE 160 k Black and White map from Randy Millikin which gives a very detailed outline of the tribal areas in the Southern Costanoan Territory. Mid San Francisco Peninsula to the Salinas Area. (click on map)

We have discovered in the 18 Treaties of 1852-53 that there is an incredibly interesting possibility that Siyante/Zayante/Si-yan-te people of the Santa Cruz Mountains, including Awasa/A-was-Sa, WALKED across California, ducking bounty hunters and murderous white men to sign treaty M - For and in behalf of the Si-yan-te tribe. These people (often misnomered as Awasas and/or speaking the "Awasas" language) were supposedly extinct as a people by 1850, assimilated into Mission Santa Cruz, wiped out, etc. yet, IN 1852, they WERE AWARE OF THE VITAL IMPORTANCE OF THESE TREATIES, found out about them one way or another, and CONSCIOUSLY DETERMINED TO WALK ACROSS THE KILLING FIELDS OF AMERICAN CALIFORNIA TO THE SIERRA NEVADA IN ORDER TO TRY TO LAWFULLY PROTECT THEIR FAMILIES, THEIR RIGHTS, THEIR LANDS, THEIR HOMES, AS ALL INDIGENOUS PEOPLE ON THIS EARTH CAN DO

The Treaties were named alphabetically, A,B, etc. and Treaty M   (this linked to Tachi-Yokut Santa Rosa Rancheria site where full text of treaties is online - THANK YOU!) signed at Camp Fremont near Mariposa, was deigned to extend in a strip from the Sierras to the Pacific near Monterey Bay. Of course, mainly some local Miwok and Yokuts people were rounded up for some signatures. Usually an "X" as the language barriers were formidable and it is highly unlikely that the people signing comprehended what was going on. But that was not the aim of the treaty process, such as it was. The intent was to get some signatures in order to make the US occupancy somewhat credible in law. Plausible deniability, in other words, for any legal issues that might arise when Indians might dispute ethnic cleansing.

However, in respect to Costanoan/Ohlone people, one tribe seems to have made an extraordinary effort to reach the treaty meeting and get their presence recognized. This seems to have been overlooked in the narrative on Ohlone peoples. On February 21 (2009) I brought this up with Mark Hylkema (California State Parks Archeologist) at a talk he gave on the Ohlone at Rancho de Oso. This may help transform, in part, the misconceptions broadly held of the struggle Ohlone people have faced surviving over the last 150 years. Further research on this crucual point is important.

Pasted in below is the text of some signatures from treaty M (to read the treaty click on the link above)

For and in behalf of the Si-yan-te tribe.
TRAI-PAX-E, chief, his x mark.
HABITO, his x mark.
CO-TOS, his x mark.
E-LI-UM, his x mark.
AN-GOT, his x mark.
HO-MO-LUCK, his x mark.
PE-TE-LA, his x mark.
MA-LA-TIA, his x mark.
A-WAS - SA, hi s x mark.

KEY PHRASE in treaty "M" (and others) is.... "ART. 8. These articles of agreement-to be binding on the contracting parties when ratified and confirmed by the President and Senate of the United States of America.
In testimony whereof, the said parties have hereunto signed their names and affixed their seals upon the day and date above written.
REDIK McKEE G. W. BARBOUR O. M. WOZENCRAFT" THEY WERE NEVER RATIFIED and so these agreements were never binding, ownership of California in WHITE law ABSOLUTELY affirmed and thus further encroachment/settlement by whites was and is illegal. Always was, always will be until treaty negotiations/land claims settlement of 1928 is reopened and settled with justice and good faith!

thanks to the Tachi Yokut Tribe... for posting text of these treaties to learn more about the Engineering of Genocide as a process of the U.S.

While academics in the early 1900's would tell you that the Mutsun/Costanoan people were extinct, a community of these people lived in and around Indian Canyon (know then as Indian Gulch). Howard Harris let me scan a 1907 survey map that marked an "Indian Settlement" along Limekiln Road, a short distance over a ridge from the canyon. Howard talks about his first visit to Indian Canyon in 1920 on a youtube video on our home page.
san francisco shore untouched by our Euro-American devastation LARGE 140 k color map by Nancy Morita showing the original shores of San Francisco. These verdant tidal lands yielded shellfish, fowl, migratory salmon and steelhead and much much more for the Ohlone peoples who were over run by invading Euro-Americans and Spanish. The filled in areas indicated by dotted lines now are subject to liquefaction in Earthquakes and of course, paradise is now paved - many museums and parks make much of nature while in fact it is destroyed by Euro-American greed and short-sightedness.
icon for Gabilan 1840'sBparchment map 581 k .JPG scan of an 184? parchment map of the Salinas and San Benito River valleys, Gabilan Mountains and you can find "aguaje" - meaning the springs that fed the "cienega" (swamp) that hid the Indian Canyon area.